Genetics is the study of genes and heredity and the differences in organisms that arise from their genes. The genetic traits passed on to us from our parents determine how we look, influence what diseases we have, and may also affect our behavior. By studying genes and how they are inherited, researchers can understand many diseases and learn how to treat and possibly prevent them. In this activity, you will discover the history of the science of genetics and learn simple tools that will help you understand how genes are passed on from one generation to the next.

SOME More fun animal facts: *

More fun animal facts:
  • Rats breed so quickly that in just 18 months, 2 rats could have created over 1 million relatives.
  • The blue whale can produce the loudest sound of any animal. At 188 decibels, the noise can be detected over 800 kilometres away.


Gorilla factsGorillas
Gorillas are endangered species that are constantly 
under threat from disease and commercial hunting. 
Their importance is further enhanced by the fact
that they are close relatives to humans, sharing 
98% of the same DNA. Learn more by 
reading our list of gorilla facts.


Giraffe factsGiraffes
Giraffes are the tallest land animals on earth
thanks in part to their distinctive necks which
alone can reach almost 2 meters in height. 
Find out more about their habitat and other 


Wolf factsWolves
Living and hunting in packs, wolves are wild dogs 
that come from the same group as the dingo and 
coyote. They can reach speeds of 65 km/h (40 mph)
when chasing prey and include a number of species
such as the gray wolf (also known as the grey wolf 
or timber wolf), red wolf, arctic wolf, mexican wolf 
and white wolf. Read on for more interesting
information and enjoy our full list of wolf facts.


Elephant facts
Check out these interesting
elephant facts and learn more 
about the biggest land mammal in 
the world. Elephants are unique 
animals that live in parts of Africa 
and Asia. Scroll down for more


Cheetah factsCheetahs
Learn more about the cheetah by reading these fun cheetah facts. 
Cheetahs are part of the big cat family and while they can’t climb
trees, they can run faster than any other land animal. Read on for 
more interesting cheetah information.


Lion factsLions
Enjoy these fun lion facts for kids. Learn about lion behavior,
how fast they can run, where they are found, how many lions
are usually in a pride, the male’s mane, lioness differences and
more. Check out the wide range of interesting facts about lions.


Frog factsFrogs
Frogs are fascinating animals that feature unique behaviors and 
characteristics. Keep reading for more interesting information 
and frog facts.


Whale factsWhales
Whales are huge, warm-blooded, air breathing mammals that live
in the sea. There are many different species including the blue whale,
killer whale, humpback whale, orca and minke. Learn more about
whale conservation, their habitat, migration and other interesting
information with our fun whale facts.


Dolphin facts
Check out these fun dolphin 
facts for kids. Learn about 
different types of dolphins, 
how they communicate with 
each other and much more.
Read on and enjoy these
interesting facts about dolphins.


Shark factsSharks
Although sharks have a reputation as destructive beasts that attack
almost anything that enters their water habitat, the actual number of 
shark attacks is probably lower than you imagine. There are many 
different types of sharks including the great white shark, hammerhead 
shark, bull shark, tiger shark and mako, they all offer varied and
interesting information so read on and enjoy our cool shark facts.


White tigerEnjoy these fun
tiger facts for kids. 
Learn about different 
types of tigers, how 
big they are, how fast 
they run, how they hunt
and more. Check out 
the wide range of interesting facts about tigers 
and their cubs.


 factsCheck out these fun cat facts
for kids. Learn about cats as
pets, their unique behavior, how
long they sleep and much more.
Read on and 
enjoy the wide range of interesting
facts about 
cats and kittens.


 factsEnjoy these fun dog facts that deliver
a variety of information about interesting
breeds, puppies, guide dogs such as
Labradors and much more. As the
famous saying goes, dogs are man’s 
best friend. Whether it’s as reliable 
workers, family pets or loyal companions,
dogs are wonderful domestic animals 
that offer a number of qualities that
are put to good use by humans.



Part of the cat family, leopard’s bodies are built for hunting. They are solitary
animals, hunting at night and often drag their food up trees for safe keeping. 
Read on for more interesting information and leopard facts.
Leopard facts


This diagram shows the anterior muscles of a fully extended adult human body from a front on perspective.

This diagram shows the anterior muscles of a fully extended adult 
human body from a front on perspective


The circulatory system is centred on the HEART, a muscular organ that rhythmically pumps BLOOD around a complex network of BLOOD VESSELS extending to every part of the body. Blood carries the oxygen and nutrients needed to fuel the activities of the body’s tissues and organs, and it plays a vital role in removing the body’s waste products. An average-sized adult carries about 5 litres (9 pints) of blood.


The circulatory system is centred on the HEART, a muscular organ that rhythmically pumps BLOOD around a complex network of BLOOD VESSELS extending to every part of the body. Blood carries the oxygen and nutrients needed to fuel the activities of the body’s tissues and organs, and it plays a vital role in removing the body’s waste products. An average-sized adult carries about 5 litres (9 pints) of blood.



Humans have a very keen sense of smell: we can detect thousands of different smells. This ability relies on the presence of special sensory receptors in the upper part of the nose. When stimulated by odour molecules, these receptors send signals along nerves to the brain for processing. Sometimes odour molecules do not reach the sensory area, but sniffing will help get them there.


The nervous system is the body’s main control system. It is made up of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (or CNS) and a network of NERVES that extend from the CNS to all parts of the body. The nervous system regulates both voluntary activities, such as walking and talking, and involuntary activities, such as breathing, which you make no conscious decisions about.


The skeleton is covered by layers of skeletal muscle. Each muscle is attached to two or more bones so that when the muscle contracts (shortens) it produces MOVEMENT. Skeletal muscle makes up about 40 per cent of body weight. As well as producing movement, some muscles remain partially contracted for long periods to maintain the body’s posture.


The body is supported and its internal parts protected by a strong yet flexible framework of BONES called the skeleton. These bones meet at JOINTS, most of which allow movement between the bones they connect. As well as protection and movement, bones provide a store for the mineral calcium, which is vital to the working of nerves and muscles. They also contain bone marrow, which makes blood cells and stores fat.


Our body structures are arranged into several different systems, each with its own specific function. The smallest units in the body are CELLS, which share certain characteristics. These tiny structures are collected into TISSUES, which are themselves arranged into ORGANS. Different body systems consist of collections of cells, tissues, and organs with a common purpose.


As animals grow they can change in both their form and their behaviour. Some animals change suddenly and drastically – for instance, caterpillars metamorphose into butterflies in a matter of weeks. Most animals develop gradually. Some young animals are cared for by parents. This allows them to learn about life from an experienced adult. Others are left to fend for themselves and have to rely on their instinct.


Animals reproduce in one of two ways. In asexual reproduction, animals produce young, which are identical to themselves, without mating with another animal. Most creatures that reproduce in this way do not live very long but can reproduce in large numbers rapidly. In sexual reproduction, a female animal’s egg unites with a male’s sperm cell after mating, in a process known as FERTILIZATION. The offspring inherit features, called traits, from both parents. These animals tend to develop more slowly and many have parental care after birth.


Some animals perform complex rituals to attract a mate. These displays, performed during the breeding season, are known as courtship. Usually it is the males that perform. They may court one female or several in turn. Sometimes groups of males perform at a particular spot, called a lek, with females visiting to select a mate. Some animals have only one partner throughout their life. They do not need to perform a display, but they do need to keep a strong bond with their partners.


The life cycle of an animal consists of all the stages from the start of one generation to the beginning of the next. For many insects, it takes only a few weeks for the young to become adults and reproduce themselves, but for larger animals it can take years. Some animals reproduce once and die, but many reproduce repeatedly during their adult life. A number of animals undergo a transformation, known as METAMORPHOSIS, as the young animal changes, gradually or directly, into the adult form.


All mammals are endothermic (warm-blooded), have some fur or hair on their body, and feed their young milk. They have a bony skeleton with a backbone, and their lower jaw, made of one bone, hinges directly onto the skull. Mammals breathe using lungs. A few mammals lay eggs, and some carry their young in pouches, but most have a placenta and give birth to live young. Mammals are found all over the world, on land, in the air, and in water.


Birds are endothermic (warm-blooded) animals that have feathers, beaks, and scales on their legs. They lays eggs, which they usually keep warm in nests until the young hatch. Most birds are good at flying. They have powerful wings and light, strong bones. Flight has enabled birds to colonize every habitat in the world, including remote islands and polar regions.


Reptiles are ectothermic (cold-blooded) animals. They cannot generate their own body heat and many bask in the sun to get warm. Tough, dry scales cover their skin, preventing the loss of too much water, and protecting the reptile from harm. Reptiles with legs have a sprawling gait because their limbs are jointed to the side, not below as in birds or mammals.


Amphibians generally start life in water, but later change so that they can live on land. Most return to the water to mate. The life cycle involves three stages: egg, larva, and adult. The change from larva to adult is known as metamorphosis. Amphibians are ectothermic (cold-blooded) animals that have a bony internal skeleton. They have small lungs and can also breathe through their smooth skin, which must be kept moist.


Fish are water animals that evolved about 500 million years ago. They were the first animals to have an internal skeleton. Most fish have scale-covered bodies with fins and a tail for swimming. They breathe using gills to absorb oxygen from the water, although a few, such as the lungfish, can survive in air. The four classes of fish – jawless fish, sharks, lungfish, and bony fish – have common characteristics, but are only distantly related.


Echinoderms have a spiny body that usually divides into five equal parts. They walk on hundreds of tube feet that are full of water. If they lose part of their body, they can regrow it. They have a skeleton of calcium-carbonate plates.


Slugs, snails, oysters, clams, squid, octopuses, and cuttlefish are very different to look at, but they are all molluscs. They have a ribbon-like tongue, called the radula, covered in thousands of denticles (tiny teeth). Many have a calcium-carbonate shell. Most molluscs live in water, but slugs and snails live on land.


Spiders, scorpions, ticks, and mites have two body parts and four pairs of legs. They breathe using lung books (that look like an open book) in the abdomen. The front part of the body, known as the cephalothorax, bears the legs and two pairs of mouthparts: the chelicerae, which are like either pincers or fangs, and the pedipalps, which look like either legs or claws. Most arachnids live on land, but some live in water.


An insect’s body divides into three sections. The head holds the eyes, antennae, and mouthparts. The thorax bears three pairs of jointed legs and two pairs of wings. The abdomen contains the digestive system and the sex organs. Most insects undergo a complete change between the larval stage and the adult form.


Crustaceans have a hard, jointed external skeleton, called an exoskeleton, that protects them like armour. They have five pairs of jointed legs, and in some species, the front pair of legs are modified to form strong pincers. Crustaceans have compound eyes (made up of lots of lenses) on stalks and two pairs of antennae, which help them to sense predators. Most crustaceans live in water, but some, such as woodlice, live in damp places on land.


There are about one million species of worm, living in a wide range of habitats. They have a long, thin body, and have no legs. Many worms are parasites that live on or in another animal and use strong mouthparts to feed off that animal. Others are predators, and can move quite quickly. The three main groups are FLATWORMS, ROUNDWORMS, and SEGMENTED WORMS.


Cnidarians are water animals that have a simple, usually symmetrical, body with a mouth opening. Stinging cells on tentacles around the mouth catch prey. Cnidarians are either bell-shaped and mobile, like the jellyfish, or tubes anchored to one spot, like coral and sea anemones.


The simplest of all animals, most sponges live in colonies (groups) that are little more than units of cells organized into two layers. Most live in the sea and are usually hermaphroditic – each sponge produces both eggs and sperm. The larvae are free-living, but adults are sessile – they remain anchored in one place.


The study of the structure of living things is called anatomy. All animals are made up of CELLS, some of which are specialized to carry out different functions. Simple animals, such as sponges, are made up of only a few types of cell. In more complex animals, cells are organized into tissues, such as muscles and nerves that are necessary for movement. Tissues can form organs, such as the heart, which is used to pump blood around the CIRCULATORY SYSTEM.


Animals belong to the largest and most diverse of the five kingdoms of living things. So far over two million animal species have been identified. All animals share certain features. Unlike plants, animals get the energy they need by eating food. They are all made up of many cells and many animals are highly mobile. Most reproduce sexually and have sense organs that allow them to react quickly to their surroundings. CLASSIFICATION uses these and other characteristics to group similar animals together.

Classifying Animals

There are billions of different kinds of living things (or organisms) on earth. To help study them, biologists have devised ways of naming and classifying them according to their similarities and differences.
The system most scientists use puts each living thing into seven groups (or taxons), organized from most general to most specific. Therefore, each species belongs to a genus, each genus belongs to a family, each family belongs to an order, etc.

Five Kingdoms of Life

Every living creature on Earth belongs to a kingdom. Scientists debate how many kingdoms there are, but most agree there are five. Here is how the five kingdoms are organized.

Blood Pressure Explained

Blood pressure is the force of blood against the walls of arteries. Blood pressure is recorded as two numbers—the systolic pressure (as the heart beats) over the diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats). The measurement is written one above or before the other, with the systolic number on top and the diastolic number on the bottom. For example, a blood pressure measurement of 120/80 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury) is expressed verbally as “120 over 80.”

The Five Senses

Each person has five sense organs that take in information from your environment and send it to your brain. Your brain then processes the information and tells your body how to respond. The sense organs are your eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin.

SightEyesDetect color and light
HearingEarsDetect sound
SmellNoseDetects scents
TasteTongueDetects tastes: sweet, salty, sour and bitter
TouchSkinDetects pain, pressure, heat and cold

Blood Types

Human blood is grouped into four types: A, B, AB, and O. Each letter refers to a kind of antigen, or protein, on the surface of red blood cells. For example, the surface of red blood cells in Type A blood has antigens known as A-antigens.

The Rh Factor

Each blood type is also grouped by its Rhesus factor, or Rh factor. Blood is either Rh positive (Rh+) or Rh negative (Rh-). About 85% of Americans have Rh+ blood.
Rhesus refers to another type of antigen, or protein, on the surface of red blood cells. The name Rhesus comes from Rhesus monkeys, in which the protein was discovered.

The Female Body

The Reproductive System

The female body is incredible. The following list describes the events in a female's body that enable her to bear children.
  • At birth, a girl baby has about 400,000 immature eggs, or ova, in her ovaries.
  • During puberty the eggs begin to mature. Each month one egg ripens and leaves the ovary. It passes through a fallopian tube where, if not fertilized by a sperm, it disintegrates. The uterus, which has built up tissue and blood to make a nourishing nest for the egg, sheds its lining about a week after the egg disintegrates. This is the event known as menstruation, or the menstrual period.
  • Gestation begins when an egg that has been released from the ovary is fertilized by a sperm. The result is pregnancy and the eventual birth of a child.
  • Lactation is the production of milk in a woman's breasts to feed her newborn child.
  • Menopause is when a woman's ovaries gradually stop functioning. Menstruation ceases, and this marks the end of the years that she can bear children.

Body Shapes

Being female has never been easy, especially when you consider the traps and tortures inflicted on girls and women for the sake of someone's idea of beauty. Here's a look at some of the life-threatening ways girls and women have tried to reshape themselves.

Bacteria vs. Virus

What's the Difference?

Bacteria are tiny, one-celled living organisms that can only be seen with a microscope. They live and breed in warm, moist environments in the body and elsewhere, growing quickly and causing infection. Bacterial infections can usually be treated with an antibiotic.

Viruses are smaller than bacteria and cannot be seen with a microscope. They grow inside the body and produce toxins (poisons) that can cause rashes, aches, and fevers. Viruses cannot be killed with antibiotics.

Your Body's Systems

Circulatory System

Medical Illustration of the Human Heart
The circulatory system is the body's transport system. It is made up of a group of organs that transport blood throughout the body. The heart pumps the blood and the arteries and veins transport it. Oxygen-rich blood leaves the left side of the heart and enters the biggest artery, called the aorta. The aorta branches into smaller arteries, which then branch into even smaller vessels that travel all over the body. When blood enters the smallest blood vessels, which are called capillaries, and are found in body tissue, it gives nutrients and oxygen to the cells and takes in carbon dioxide, water, and waste. The blood, which no longer contains oxygen and nutrients, then goes back to the heart through veins. Veins carry waste products away from cells and bring blood back to the heart , which pumps it to the lungs to pick up oxygen and eliminate waste carbon dioxide. 

Cell Biology


Deep inside you, on your surface, and all parts in between, fundamental functional units called cells are busy 24/7 keeping your body in a living condition. Curiously, we aren't really in charge of their behavior! In fact, if we were, it is likely we would be in a state of nonliving because of the numerous activities that take place in every cell at all times. Thankfully, we have a nervous system that handles that for us and does not bother us with the trivia of everyday functions. This is an example of the great and miraculous way your body is structurally and functionally composed to address the pressures of the living world.

Vitamins .......

vitamin, group of organic substances that are required in the diet of humans and animals for normal growth, maintenance of life, and normal reproduction. Vitamins act as catalysts; very often either the vitamins themselves are coenzymes, or they form integral parts of coenzymes. A substance that functions as a vitamin for one species does not necessarily function as a vitamin for another species. The vitamins differ in structure, and there is no chemical grouping common to them all.

The Brain

Here is a diagram of the human brain. For your GCSE biology you should be able to label this diagram and explain what the various parts do. There are three main regions of the brain: the fore-brain (green), mid-brain (red), and hind-brain (blue).

Central Nervous System


The Central Nervous System consists of the Brain and Spinal Cord. It contains millions of neurones (nerve cells). If you slice through some fresh brain or spinal cord you will find some areas appear grey whilst other ares appear rather white. The white matter consists of axons, it appears white because it contains a lot of fatty material called myelin. The myelin sheath insulates an axon from its neighbours. This means that nerve cells can conduct electrical messages without interfering with one another.


Here is some simple information for GCSE biology students about the different types of muscle tissues and why muscles work in antagonistic pairs.

Striped Muscle
Smooth Muscle
Cardiac Muscle
Antagonistic Muscles
Diagram of Biceps Contracting
Diagram of Triceps Contracting

Mammoths and Mastodons: All American Monsters

A mammoth discovery in 1705 sparked a fossil craze and gave the young United States a symbol of national might  mastodons

In the blue shadows after dawn, the low hills in this stretch of South Dakota can look like a line of elephants trudging toward some distant water hole.

Elephants' Legs Work Like Four-Wheel Drive

Elephants Elephants use a "four-leg-drive" system to get around.

  • Elephants get around much like a four-wheel drive vehicle.
  • Power is applied independently in each leg, likely a unique trait in the animal kingdom.
  • Each limb is used for braking and acceleration, unlike other four-legged animals.

Laughter: It's No Joke

Understanding this primal form of communication is no laughing matter for scientists.

Laughter Laughter isn't dependent on a single sense but on social interactions.
Tay Jir/Digital Vision


  • Laughter is a primal form of communication that is not unique to humans.
  • Only 10 to 15 percent of laughter is the result of someone making a joke.
  • Laughter itself hasn't been proven to be the best medicine.

China Powering Up First Offshore Wind Farm

The nation's offshore wind power will equal all existing onshore wind farms by 2020

China Offshore Wind Power Let's kick the turbines and, um, collect some wind power Sinovel
China is already the world's largest market for wind power, but it's not stopping with the onshore sites.

Exotic 'Electroweak' Star Predicted

When a star dies, there are a few different forms the stellar corpse can take. Now researchers have added another variety of 'dead' star to the list: the electroweak star.

Space Shuttle Discovery Launches in Pre-Dawn

The mission to stockpile the space station also brings a record number of women (four) to space.


space shuttle discovery 
launch Space Shuttle Discovery lifts-off from the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral, Fla. April 5, 2010.
Associated Press

  • Space Shuttle Discovery launched into orbit early Monday.
  • The mission will stockpile supplies to the International Space Station.
  • Once combined, the shuttle and station crews will number 13.

Shuttle to Launch 'Plug and Play' Micro-Labs

On Monday, Space Shuttle Discovery will carry equipment and experiments to the International Space Station (ISS). However, one payload is particularly exciting.
As part of a joint venture between Kentucky Space (a non-profit space research collaboration based in Kentucky) and the Houston-based company NanoRacks, a new type of standardized micro-laboratory will be launched and installed on the space station during the 13-day STS-131 mission.

Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: Enterobacteriales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Escherichia
Species: E. coli
Binomial name
Escherichia coli
(Migula 1895)
Castellani and Chalmers 1919
Bacillus coli communis Escherich 1885

In my next life I will be

Universe; Kim D. French/ I’ve decided that in my next life I will be someone who is much better at math.
Now, I know that in the usual understanding of reincarnation one is not given a choice. Somehow or other one’s behavior in the present life determines, or at least strongly influences, what one will be in the next. This entails the possibility of coming back as a lesser being rather than as a greater one.

The Last Wild Camels

Wild Bactrian, or two-humped, camels are extraordinary creatures.  They also are very rare—at most, 950 remain in the wild, though this number may be much lower, since their broad habitat has made obtaining accurate population counts difficult.  A number of human factors have contributed to their decline, including hunting for food and sport and nuclear testing and illegal mining activity within their native habitats in Mongolia and China.  These human-induced reductions have resulted in an increased risk of further decline of wild Bactrian populations from natural causes, such as climate change and predation.

Wolf-Dog Hybrids: Man’s Best Friend?

Wolf-dog hybrids are becoming increasingly popular as household pets. But the rise in their sales in the United Kingdom and recent reports of escaped hybrids killing small dogs and threatening humans in the United States have renewed concerns about whether these animals should continue to be bred and sold to the public.

Wolf-dog hybrid---Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources

Insulin & Blood Sugar

Insulin is a hormone, that means it is a chemical secreted into the blood by an endocrine organ and carried around the body to a target organ. Insulin helps to control the amount of glucose dissolved in the blood. Insulin prevents the blood sugar level from rising too high. It is also necessary to have insulin in your blood for respiration to take place. Without insulin cells can only get energy from fat and this causes serious problems. The control of blood sugar level is a homeostatic mechanism.

The Kidney

Our kidneys do a grand job removing the toxic waste products of metabolism. This process is called excretion. Our kidneys produce urine which contains urea, excess salts and excess water.
What you need to know
Regions of the kidney
How the kidney works


Osmoregulation is the control of the levels of water and mineral salts in the blood. It is a homeostatic mechanism. There are three important homeostatic mechanisms: osmoregulation, thermoregulation and regulation of blood sugar levels. Homeostasis is important because it results in our cells being bathed in tissue fluid which has the correct amount of water, mineral salts, glucose and temperature.
What happens if you drink too much beer?
Water gain
Water loss


Hormones are chemical messengers. They are secreted into the blood by endocrine organs. They are carried around the body in the blood system to "target organs" which are controlled by specific hormones. Insulin is produced by the islets of Langerhans (small groups of cells in the pancreas); these islets (little islands) are endocrine organs. Insulin has an effect on the liver: it makes the liver convert glucose into glycogen. The liver stores glycogen.


You need to know about three things:

Tissue Respiration getting energy out of glucose.
Ventilation of the Lungs getting air in and out of your lungs.
Gaseous Exchange swapping Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide.
Try to avoid using simple words like "breathing" if this does not make it absolutely clear what you mean. Tissue Respiration, Ventilating the Lungs and Gaseous Exchange are terms with precise meanings and you must know what these are.


Enzymes are biological catalysts: this means that they speed up the chemical reactions in living things. Without enzymes, our guts would take weeks and weeks to digest our food, our muscles, nerves and bones would not work properly and so on - we would not be living!

Nicotinic Acid



Chemical Structure


Deficiency Disease


Other Effects

Other Members of the Vitamin B Complex


Vitamins are chemicals which are required in very small quantities to keep you healthy. If a particular vitamin is missing from your diet you will suffer from a deficiency disease. For example, if you have absolutely no Vitamin C you will end up with a deficiency disease called scurvy. You will be cured from the disease, if it is in the early stages, by eating things which contain Vitamin C. It is not possible to catch a deficiency disease from someone else.


This is just a beginning: some information on glucose, fructose and sucrose. More sugars will be added to this page in due course.
Structural Formulae:


The Mouth

Here is a diagram of a vertical slice through your mouth. You should be able to label the diagram and explain what the various parts do.


  1. nasal cavity
  2. hard palate
  3. soft palate
  4. pharynx
  5. tongue
  6. epiglottis
  7. oesophagus (gullet)
  8. trachea (windpipe)
  9. salivary gland
  10. lower jaw
  11. mouth
  12. nostril


You should be able to label this diagram. You should also know about the different kinds of teeth and how they are used. You will certainly know about plaque, dental decay and toothpaste from all those adverts, parents and dentists, so I will not bother with that part of the syllabus.


A Balanced Diet

A balanced diet must contain carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, mineral salts and fibre. It must contain these things in the correct proportions.
  1. Carbohydrates: these provide a source of energy.
  2. Proteins: these provide a source of materials for growth and repair.
  3. Fats: these provide a source of energy and contain fat soluble vitamins.
  4. Vitamins: these are required in very small quantities to keep you healthy.
  5. Mineral Salts: these are required for healthy teeth, bones, muscles etc..
  6. Fibre: this is required to help your intestines function correctly; it is not digested.
  7. Balanced Diets: we must have the above items in the correct proportions.

Blood Plasma

Plasma: is the liquid part of blood; it transports dissolved substances around the body and defends it against disease.

Composition of Blood:

Red Blood Cells

White Blood Cells 


Plasma which contains: 


Blood is a liquid tissue; it transports substances around the body and defends it against disease.

Composition of Blood:
Red Blood Cells
White Blood Cells 
Plasma which contains: 

The Heart

There are two stages in a heart beat. They are called systole and diastole. For your GCSE biology exam you should be able to label a diagram of the heart, put arrows on the diagram to show how blood flows through the heart, and explain how the muscles and valves force blood through the heart. You should also know that the left hand side of the heart pumps blood from the lungs to the rest of the body and that the right hand side pumps blood from the body back to the lungs.


Mitosis is a special kind of cell division used by eukaryote cells. You will probably find a series of diagrams in your biology text book to show the stages of mitosis; these are:

  • prophase
  • metaphase
  • anaphase
  • telophase

Plant Cells

You might get asked how this cell is specialised for its function. Well, this kind of cell is found in a leaf and it has many chloroplasts for photosynthesis.
Chloroplasts contain photosynthetic pigments. You have probably heard of "chlorophyll" which is needed for photosynthesis. If there was only one kind of photosynthetic pigment you would expect all green plants to be exactly the same shade of green, but they are not. This is because there are several different photosynthetic pigments and different plants have different amounts of each one and they are not all the same colour.

Animal Cells

Here is a typical animal cell. Cells are specialised to do different jobs. They are usually arranged into tissues. A tissue contains many cells all of the same kind and all doing the same jobs. You must know about a variety of animal cells for your GCSE exam, so here are some examples.
Click the underlined 
words to jump.

Kids now getting 'adult' diseaseKids now getting 'adult' disease

After they’re diagnosed and for the rest of their lives, type 1 
diabetics need to regularly test their blood sugar levels with a 
pinching tool that draws a little blood. They also have to give 
themselves shots of insulin several times a day to control blood sugar 
After they’re diagnosed and for the rest of their lives, type 1 diabetics need to regularly test their blood sugar levels with a pinching tool that draws a little blood. They also have to give themselves shots of insulin several times a day to control blood sugar levels.

What the appendix is good for

[Article Image]

Make Your Own Rainbow

Prism rainbow

What you'll need:
  • A glass of water (about three quarters full)
  • White paper
  • A sunny day

What is the Volume of Your Lungs?

 is the volume of your lungs?

What you'll need:
  • Clean plastic tubing
  • A large plastic bottle
  • Water
  • Kitchen sink or large water basin

Test Your Dominant Side

What you'll need:
  • A pen or pencil
  • Paper or a notepad to write your findings on
  • An empty tube (an old paper towel tube is good)
  • A cup of water
  • A small ball (or something soft you can throw)
    Which eye is dominant? 

Learn about plants by growing your own!

  • Talk to the students about the type of flowers and plants they might see in the spring and summer time. Let the kids know that today they will be making plants for their very own summer garden to take home and look after.
  • What kind of things will our garden plants need to survive? Sunlight, nutrients, water etc

Investigate the causes and effects of moisture

  • Ask the students if they think there city is particularly damp, why are some cities damper than others? Why do they have more moisture in the air? The reason often comes down to location and geography, where the city is located can make a big difference. If a city is built on or near a swamp area, moisture comes through the ground and eventually into people’s houses. Home owners might need to buy a dehumidifier to help improve this kind of situation.

Extract DNA from a banana!

  • Found in the shape of a double helix, DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid as it is otherwise known, provides the blueprint for various forms of life. This includes humans, monkeys and even things like bananas. Let's try a fun activity that involves extracting DNA from a banana.

Learn about your brain and senses

  • It is said that as far back as 10000 years ago people had a strong awareness of the importance of the head and brain.
  • The word ‘brain’ originated from the ancient Egyptians.
  • Early philosophers such as Socrates and Aristotle wrote and made theories regarding the human brain although Aristotle also believed that the heart played a crucial role in human intelligence.
  • The human brain interprets the world around us in many different ways. These processes are researched in the study of neuroscience.

Getting Under Your Skin

It’s bath-time. The perfect moment to teach your child about her skin! While you’re drying excess water off and sprinkling on some powder, you can ask your child if she knows what part of her body holds in her insides. Tell your child that this is just one function of our skin but that it has other jobs as well. Skin has a protective function, preventing us from infection and also contains cells that produce hair, sweat and oils and other substances that are important for our health and appearance.

Leaping into a Frog's World

Nothing beats watching your kids learn about something by direct observation. The wonder in their faces as they see a process unfold and “catch on" to principles that you have talked about is worth the time it takes to think about how to fashion the lesson! Along that line, in order to teach your children about frogs and their life cycle, why not let them actually watch a tadpole grow up?

Shoo Fly - You Bother Me!

How many kinds of flies are there? Well that depends on who you ask.
Most people would say, “one kind…the annoying kind!”
But if you asked a scientist, they’d tell you there are over 
40,000 known species of flies.

8 Harsh Truths that Will Improve Your Life

They say life is what we make of it. By the end of this post, I hope to have helped you decide whether that statement is true or not.

How to Finally Overcome Shyness

I used to be a very shy person. Whenever I was around other people I would stress out. When in the company of more than one person, I was generally very quiet, and speaking to a group of even two or three friends was a difficult thing for me to do.

How to Get Back Into Your Routine After a Break

At various times, we take breaks from the normal run of life. Sometimes, this is due to work itself (e.g. a conference) and sometimes it's a vacation. Whatever the reason, there's always going to be a transition period where you need to get back into your regular working routine once you come home.

Five Ways to Get Started Making Money Online – With Insider Tips

Are you as sick as I am of blogs, ebooks and gurus all promising to teach you how to "make money online"? In many cases, they're people flogging a product that they swear any idiot could use to make a fortune … overnight … on the beach … in just two hours a day…

How to Discover Your Life’s Purpose – 7 Questions to Ask

“Everything created solves a problem.” – Mike Murdock

Your eyes see, your ears hear, your nose smells. Doctors solve medical problems, lawyers solve legal problems. Your shirt keeps you warm; your watch tells you the time. Everything created solves a problem.

Amazing Life Lessons You Can Learn From Albert Einstein: Part Deux

Given the great response to the article “10 Amazing Life Lessons You Can Learn From Albert Einstein,” I’ve decided to publish the other seven lessons that I originally intended to include in that article. These were cut out because I feared the article was too long. However, I now believe that these seven lessons are even more profound than the original ten.

15 Awesome Tutorial Websites You Probably Don't Know About

If I were forced to choose an aspect of the internet that made it simply indispensable, it would definitely be its availability as a huge learning resource. 20 years ago, who would have thought that one would have easy access to already completed business documents, research papers of world class universities, free encyclopedias and some great books, no matter where he or she is located in the world.

14 Simple Ways to Super Charge Your Brain

Have you ever felt exasperated when you bumped into someone at the store but absolutely couldn't remember their name? Sure, it happens to all of us.

Seven Ways to Create More Time In Your Day

Do you ever feel like you have way too much time on your hands, and far too little work and life to fit into it? Unless you're a teen on summer break, I reckon it's unlikely! Most of us would love to have an extra couple of hours in each day. With two more hours, we could find time to exercise, to read some of the books that are gathering dust on our shelves, to spend time with the kids...